Trichomoniasis infection increases the risk of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia | Latest news for doctors, nurses and pharmacists
men with Vaginal trichomoniasis infections appear to pose an elevated risk for prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), according to a recent study.
From 2000 to 2015, a total of 62,544 patients with BPH, PCa, and bladder cancer (BC) were enrolled with Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Program; in parallel, a cohort of 187,632 healthy controls was also included. The proportion of trichomoniasis was significantly higher in patients than in controls (0.02% versus 0.01%; pSci Rep 2022;12:15358]
Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that trichomoniasis was significantly associated with BPH, PCa, or BC, increasing the odds of such diagnoses nearly three-fold (adjusted odds ratio [OR]2.999, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.426–5.301; p=0.002). Depression also significantly worsened the likelihood of such conditions (adjusted OR, 3.124, 95% CI, 1.808-4.838; p
Other notable correlates of BPH, PCa, and BC included season of disease diagnosis, health insurance coverage, level of care, and urbanization of residence.
It should be noted that the stratified analysis showed that T. vaginalis infection significantly increased the risk of BPH (adjusted OR, 2.685, 95% CI, 1.233 to 4.286; p=0.013) and PCa (adjusted OR, 5.801, 95% CI, 1.296 to 26.035; p=0.016) , but not BC (adjusted OR, 4.012, 95% CI, 0.524–31.145; p=0.151).
“The mechanism of T. vaginalis the induction of BPH and PCa still remains unclear,” the researchers said, adding that several studies have proposed different possible pathways.
For instance, infection could induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a cycle of cell damage and repair in chronic inflammatory conditions. This could lead to BPH and possibly malignant transformation. [Differentiation 2011;82:200-2; Parasite Immunol 2016;38:678-687]
There is currently not enough evidence to establish a definitive link between BC and trichomoniasis, the researchers added. “However, our study shows no significant association between T. vaginal infection and BC likely due to limited sample.
Most vulnerable to trichomoniasis
The researchers also performed stratified analyzes to identify characteristics this further aggravated the overall risk of BPH, PCa, or BC.
They found that participants older than 65 with trichomoniasis saw a much higher likelihood of these diagnoses (adjusted OR, 3.685, 95% CI, 1.705-8.015), as did participants with depression (adjusted OR , 3.104, 95% CI, 1.706-5.972).
“We added depression as one of the comorbidities in our study because of another national population-based cohort study in Taiwan which showed that patients with trichomoniasis had higher risks of developing a psychiatric disorder. individual, including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance abuse,” the researchers explained.
“The results of our study demonstrate that with the exception of depression, no comorbidity had a significant association with BPH, PCa or BC,” they added. [Parasit Vectors 2019;12:88]
The presence of depression and trichomoniasis exerted what the researchers called a “joint effect” on the risk of BPH, PCa, and BC, resulting in a more than 7.6-fold increase in the likelihood of these diagnoses per report to witnesses.
“Due to the lack of awareness of this pathogen, clinicians should not only treat patients already diagnosed, but should also pay more attention to groups at higher risk of exposure to trichomoniasis,” the researchers said. .